Amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis is a relatively new seismic technique used very successfully to predict hydrocarbon (especially gas) and lithologies for oil exploration and reservoir characterization.
Using the AVO technique seismic amplitudes and their variation as a function of offset are analyzed. This information is then used to predict lithology and fluid content.
The basic concept behind the AVO technique is the analysis of the reflection process. We take advantage of the fact that the measured amplitude is related to the strength of the reflection (reflection coefficient), and that the reflection coefficient depends on three parameters:
1. Change in P-wave velocity across the interface.
2. Change in S-wave velocity across the interface.
3. Change in density across the interface.
To understand AVO technology it is important to have an understanding of how:
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